عنوان مقاله [English]
Background & Purpose: This study aimed to identify factors affecting on the security of the Iranian football stadiums and develop an appropriate questionnaire in this context.
Methodology: In the qualitative phase of the study, critical factors affecting on the security of the stadiums were identified and a 98-items questionnaire was emerged. In the quantitative phase, 144 participants (police officers, football organizers, stadium managers and university professors) answered the questionnaire. After exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis, final questionnaire formed by 83 items in format of four main and 12 secondary factors affecting the security of the Iranian football stadiums.
Results: The results demonstrated that fit indices of the research model in the first and second-order CFA are convenient and based on second-order CFA results, infrastructure (t=14.69, p=0.05), physical protection (t=13.45, p=0.05), personnel and staff (t=13.05, p=0.05) and game planning and management (t=12.29, p=0.05) are four critical factors affecting the security of the football stadiums. Based on the EFA, the divergent validity of the questionnaire verified.
Discussion: Designed questionnaire in this study has appropriate validity and reliability and it can be used after adjustment in the future researches in the area of the security of the sport facilities and particularly football stadiums. Furthermore, factors and items presented in the questionnaire can assist football organizers and also sport facility managers to employ proper security measures to prevent threats and provide safe and secure environment for audiences at the stadiums.