یادگیری یک مهارت ورزشی جدید در وزنه‌برداران: اثرات طولانی مدت تمرین با وزنه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه اراک

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف: این پژوهش، پیرامون یکی از مشکلات احتمالی در یادگیری حرکتی است که به دنبال تمرینات وزنه برداری و کاهش دامنه حرکتی گریبان گیر وزنه برداران می شود.
روش شناسی: جامعه پژوهش حاضر، وزنه برداران 20 تا 25 ساله تهران با حداقل سابقه 3 سال تمرین و افراد معمولی غیر وزنه بردار هستند که از بین آنها 20 وزنه بردار (67/1±12/21 سال) و 20 غیر وزنه بردار (23/1±45/21 سال) به روش هدفمند، انتخاب شدند و طبق برنامه­ای یکسان مهارت سرویس چکشی والیبال را طی یک هفته (در سه جلسه و 120 کوشش) آموزش دیدند. جهت استنباط یادگیری، دقت اجرا با آزمون سرویس چکشی اپرد و کینماتیک اجرا با دستگاه تحلیل حرکت ثبت و اندازه گیری شد. تحلیل داده های مربوط به دقت اجرا با استفاده از آزمون تی مستقل و وابسته، تحلیل واریانس مرکب با اندازه گیری مکرر و نتایج کینماتیکی اجرا از طریق مقایسه نمودارهای جابجایی زاویه مفاصل و نمودار زوایه- زوایه افراد دو گروه با الگوی مرجع انجام گرفت.
یافته ها: تحلیل داده ها، نشان می دهدکه تمرین باعث بهبود نمرات دقت اجرای دو گروه می شود، اما عملکرد دو گروه با هم متفاوت است (0001/0>P). در ادامه مشاهده گردید نمرات دقت اجرا وزنه برداران در آزمون یادداری (081/0=P) و انتقال (061/0=P) تفاوت معنی داری نسبت به پیش آزمون ندارد. بعد از مقایسه ی نمودار جابجایی زاویه ای مفاصل و نمودارهای زاویه- زاویه آشکار گردیدکه الگوی جابجایی مفاصل و هماهنگی بین عضوی در افراد گروه، گواه شباهت بیشتر نسبت به الگوی مرجع است.
نتیجه گیری: وزنه برداران در مراحل اجرایی یادگیری یک مهارت جدید حرکتی، ضعیف تر از افراد معمولی هستند. این موضوع می تواند به علت محدودیت دامنه حرکتی باشد، اما نتیجه گیری در خصوص مشکل آنها در یادگیری حرکتی باید به تحقیقات بعدی موکول شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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