بررسی تأثیر تمرینات تعادلی در صبح و بعد از ظهر بر تعادل ایستا و پویای سالمندان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، گروه آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، گروه آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف: رسیدن به سن سالمندی از عمده‌ترین پیشرفت‌های بشر است، ولی طی کهولت سن، تغییراتی در کلیه اعضای بدن رخ می‌دهد که سبب افزایش اختلال در حفظ تعادل می شود که در این میان چرخه شبانه روزی بی تاثیر نیست. بنابراین، هدف تحقیق حاضر مقایسه تأثیر تمرینات تعادلی در صبح و بعد از ظهر بر تعادل ایستا و پویای سالمندان است.
روش شناسی: در این پژوهش نیمه تجربی 36 نفر سالمند سالم بدون سابقه ورزشی منظم (سن 5.5±68.7 سال، قد8.2±1.6 متر، وزن 8.9±68.4 کیلوگرم) بصورت در دسترس انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی ها به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه 12 نفره تمرین صبح و بعد از ظهر و یک گروه کنترل تقسیم شدند. گروه های تجربی به مدت هشت هفته تحت تمرینات تعادلی قرار گرفتند. برای ارزیابی تعادل ایستای آزمودنی ها از آزمون تعادل ایستادن تک پا و برای برآورد تعادل پویای آزمودنی ها از آزمون تعادل ستاره و محاسبات آماری با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 20 انجام گردید.
یافته ها: نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که اعمال برنامه‌ی تمرین تعادلی می تواند باعث بهبود تعادل ایستا و پویا در هر دو زمان صبح و بعد از ظهر گردد، همچنین تفاوت معنی داری بین تعادل ایستا و پویای سالمندان در هر دو زمان صبح و بعد از ظهر مشاهده نگردید (0.05p بحث و نتیجه گیری: یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که تمرینات تعادلی با اعمال اضافه بار بر روی انتقال اطلاعات از طریق سیستم های حسی سه گانه دستگاه عصبی مرکزی (سیستم‌های بینایی، حسی- عمقی و دهلیزی) باعث بهبود تعادل می‌شود، همچنین نتایج بیانگر عدم تفاوت در اثربخشی تمرینات تعادلی در زمان های صبح و بعد از ظهر است،لذا به نظر می رسد که می توان از تمرینات تعادلی در زمان‌های مختلف، به عنوان یک فعالیت موثر در بهبود تعادل سالمندان استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,: 351-372. ##Aslankhani, M. (2008). The relationship between the level of physical activity and general health amang older adults of the city of Tehran. Journal of human movement, pp. 57- 51.[In Persian].##Jorgensen MG, Rathleff MS, Laessoe U, Caserotti P, Nielsen OB, Aagaard P. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults. Gait Posture. 2012; 35(4):653-7. ##Downton JH. Falls. In: Tallis R, Fillit H, Brocklehurst JC, editors. Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 5th ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; 1998; 1359–1370. ##Darvishi. A. Dosti. M. (2012). "The competitive balance Iranian the league by League Soccer Selected European Countries". Journal of Sport Management and motor behavior. 10 (19). pp 141-148. [In Persian].##Ashtiyani, Kh. Khalaji, H. Bahrami, A. (2013). "compared Motor development girls obese/overweight and normal weight 12-9 years Arak". Journal of Sport Management and motor behavior. 10 (20). pp 85-94. [In Persian].##Leopold Busse, A., Gil, G., Maria Santarém,  J.,  & Jacob Filho,  W. (2009).  Physical activity and cognition in the elderly (A review).  Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 3(3), 204-208.##Hardman, Adrianne E., Stensel, & David J. (2009). Physical Activity and Health; the evidence explained, second edition, p, 238, Routladge, London.##Cromwell , R.L., Meyers, P. M., Meyers, P. E., & Newton, R. A. (2007) . Tae Kwon Do: An Effective Exercise for Improving Balance and Walking Ability in Older Adults. Journal of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 62(6), 641-6.##Iwamoto, J., Suzuki, H., Tanaka, K., Kumakubo, T., Hirabayashi, H., Miyazaki, Y., Sato, Y., Takeda, T., & Matsumoto, H. (2009). Preventative effect of exercise against falls in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 20(7),.33-40.##Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., Park, C. H. (2009). Successful Aging: The Role of Physical Activity, American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3, 20-28.##Cassilhas, R. C., Viana, V. A., Grassmann, V., Santos, R. T., Santos,  R. F., Tufik, S., & Mello, M. T. (2007). The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 39(8), 1401-7.##Colcombe, S. J., Kramer,  A. F., & Erickson,  K. I. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 101, 3316-3321.##Scherder,  E. J., Van, Paasschen. J., and Deijen,  J. B. (2005). Physical activ ity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Aging Ment Health,9, 272-280.##Bixby, W. R., Spalding, T. W., and Haufler, A. J. (2007). The Unique Rela- tion of Physical Activity to Executive Function in Older Men and Women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 39, 1408-1416.##Angevaren,  M., Aufdemkampe, G., Verhaar, H. J., Aleman,  A., and Van hees, L. (2008). Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cog nitive function in older people without known cognitive im pairment. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 16, CD005381.##Lachman ME, Neupert SD, Bertrand R, Jette AM. (2006). The effects of strength training on memory in older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity,14, 59-73.##Hoyer D, Clairambault J. Rhythms from seconds to days. Physiological importance and therapeutic implications. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2007;26(6):12-3.##Raste H, Aliaei GH,Abdolvahab M, Jalili M and Jalaei SH. Review coxy and kavtoron training to improve balance in elderly men in Mashhad elderly center. Tehran University of Medical Sciences Journal .2010; 3 (1, 2): 49- 53. [In Persian].##Atkinson G, Reilly T. Circadian variation in sport performance. Journal Sport Med. 1996; 21(4):292-312. ##Lac G, Chamoux A. [Do circannual rhythm of cortisol and testosterone interfere with variations induced by other events?]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2006; 67(1):60-3. ##Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The initial effects of low-volume strength training on balance in untrained older men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17(1):121-8. ##Souissi N, Gauthier A, Sesboüé B, Larue J, Davenne D. Effects of regular training at the same time of day on diurnal fluctuations in muscular performance. J Sports Sci. 2002; 20(11):929-37. ##Teresa LA, Kban KM, Eng JJ, Janssen PA, Lord SR, Mckay HA. Resistance and agility training reduce fall risk in women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass: A 6-month randomized, controlled trail. J Ame Geri Soc, 2004; 52: 657-665. ##Mousavi, L., Shahrokhi, H., Norasteh, A.A. (2009). The effect on the static and dynamic postural control in male and female athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine. 3: 127-113. [In Persian].##Gribble PA, Tucker WS, White PA. Time-of-day influences on static and dynamic postural control. J Athl Train. 2007; 42(1):35-41. ##Mahdavi zade Molabashi L, Safavi Bayat Z, Yaghmaei F and Mehrabi Y.Effect of balance training on balance in elderly nursing home resident in Tehran in 2010 – 2011. J Salmandi Iran 2011; 9(4):33-9. [In Persian].##Abbasi A,Sadeghi H, Berenjian Tabrizi H, Bagheri K and Ghaseminejad A R. Effect of balance training in water and non training on neuromuscular function and elderly male balance. Koomesh 2012; 3 (43):44-9. [In Persian].##Manini T, Marko M, VanArnam T, Cook S, Fernhall B, Burke J, Ploutz-Snyder L .Efficacy of resistance and task-specific exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(6):616-23.##Agarwal R. Regulation of circadian blood pressure: from mice to astronauts. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010; 19(1):51-8.##Nakano T, Araki K, Michimori A, Inbe H, Hagiwara H, Koyama E. Nineteen-hour variation of postural sway, alertness and rectal temperature during sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001; 55(3):277-8.##Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Train. 2005; 40(1):41-46.##Sadeghi H, Norouzi HR, Karimi Asl AMontazer MR, Functional Training Program Effect on Static and Dynamic Balance in Male Able-bodied Elderly. J Salmandi Iran 2009; 3(8):565-571.[In Persian].##Borzoo S, Arastoo A A, Ghasemzade R,Zahednejad Sh, Habibi A H and Latifi S M. Effect of aerobic training on elderly quality of life in Ahvaz. J Salmandi Iran 2009; 3(2):43-5.[In Persian].##Munch M, Knoblauch V, Blatter K, Schroder C, Schnitzler C, Krauchi K, et al. Age-related attenuation of the evening circadian arousal signal in humans .Neurobiol Aging. 2005; 26(9):1307-19. Epub 2005 Apr 18.##Maki BE, Holliday PJ, Topper AK. Fear of falling and postural performance in the elderly. J Gerontol. 1991; 46(4):M123-31.##

##World Health Organization. (2009). Health Promotion Glossary. Division of Health Promotion, Education and Communications (HPR) and Health Education and Health Promotion Unit (HEP), Geneva, Switzerland.##Saxena, S., & oconnell, K. (2002). Acommentary cross cultural quality of life assessment at the end of life. journal of the Geomologist, 42, 81-85.##Bashir, J., Hadi, H., Bashir, M., Rostam Khani, h. (2010). Evaluate the effect of Resistance-Balance, Velocity- Balance and Balance training on dynamic balance in active elderly males. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences; 5 (2) : 104-115. [In Persian].##Carter ND, Kannus P, Khan KM. Exercise in the prevention of falls in older people: a systematic literature review examining the rationale and the evidence. Sports Med 2001; 31(6): 42. ##Reilly T, Atkinson G and Waterhouse J. (2000). "Chronobiology and physical performance". In: Garrett, W.E., Jr., Kirkendall, D.T. eds. Exercise and sport science. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,: 351-372. ##Aslankhani, M. (2008). The relationship between the level of physical activity and general health amang older adults of the city of Tehran. Journal of human movement, pp. 57- 51.[In Persian].##Jorgensen MG, Rathleff MS, Laessoe U, Caserotti P, Nielsen OB, Aagaard P. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults. Gait Posture. 2012; 35(4):653-7. ##Downton JH. Falls. In: Tallis R, Fillit H, Brocklehurst JC, editors. Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 5th ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; 1998; 1359–1370. ##Darvishi. A. Dosti. M. (2012). "The competitive balance Iranian the league by League Soccer Selected European Countries". Journal of Sport Management and motor behavior. 10 (19). pp 141-148. [In Persian].##Ashtiyani, Kh. Khalaji, H. Bahrami, A. (2013). "compared Motor development girls obese/overweight and normal weight 12-9 years Arak". Journal of Sport Management and motor behavior. 10 (20). pp 85-94. [In Persian].##Leopold Busse, A., Gil, G., Maria Santarém,  J.,  & Jacob Filho,  W. (2009).  Physical activity and cognition in the elderly (A review).  Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 3(3), 204-208.##Hardman, Adrianne E., Stensel, & David J. (2009). Physical Activity and Health; the evidence explained, second edition, p, 238, Routladge, London.##Cromwell , R.L., Meyers, P. M., Meyers, P. E., & Newton, R. A. (2007) . Tae Kwon Do: An Effective Exercise for Improving Balance and Walking Ability in Older Adults. Journal of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 62(6), 641-6.##Iwamoto, J., Suzuki, H., Tanaka, K., Kumakubo, T., Hirabayashi, H., Miyazaki, Y., Sato, Y., Takeda, T., & Matsumoto, H. (2009). Preventative effect of exercise against falls in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 20(7),.33-40.##Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., Park, C. H. (2009). Successful Aging: The Role of Physical Activity, American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3, 20-28.##Cassilhas, R. C., Viana, V. A., Grassmann, V., Santos, R. T., Santos,  R. F., Tufik, S., & Mello, M. T. (2007). The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 39(8), 1401-7.##Colcombe, S. J., Kramer,  A. F., & Erickson,  K. I. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 101, 3316-3321.##Scherder,  E. J., Van, Paasschen. J., and Deijen,  J. B. (2005). Physical activ ity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Aging Ment Health,9, 272-280.##Bixby, W. R., Spalding, T. W., and Haufler, A. J. (2007). The Unique Rela- tion of Physical Activity to Executive Function in Older Men and Women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 39, 1408-1416.##Angevaren,  M., Aufdemkampe, G., Verhaar, H. J., Aleman,  A., and Van hees, L. (2008). Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cog nitive function in older people without known cognitive im pairment. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 16, CD005381.##Lachman ME, Neupert SD, Bertrand R, Jette AM. (2006). The effects of strength training on memory in older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity,14, 59-73.##Hoyer D, Clairambault J. Rhythms from seconds to days. Physiological importance and therapeutic implications. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2007;26(6):12-3.##Raste H, Aliaei GH,Abdolvahab M, Jalili M and Jalaei SH. Review coxy and kavtoron training to improve balance in elderly men in Mashhad elderly center. Tehran University of Medical Sciences Journal .2010; 3 (1, 2): 49- 53. [In Persian].##Atkinson G, Reilly T. Circadian variation in sport performance. Journal Sport Med. 1996; 21(4):292-312. ##Lac G, Chamoux A. [Do circannual rhythm of cortisol and testosterone interfere with variations induced by other events?]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2006; 67(1):60-3. ##Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The initial effects of low-volume strength training on balance in untrained older men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17(1):121-8. ##Souissi N, Gauthier A, Sesboüé B, Larue J, Davenne D. Effects of regular training at the same time of day on diurnal fluctuations in muscular performance. J Sports Sci. 2002; 20(11):929-37. ##Teresa LA, Kban KM, Eng JJ, Janssen PA, Lord SR, Mckay HA. Resistance and agility training reduce fall risk in women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass: A 6-month randomized, controlled trail. J Ame Geri Soc, 2004; 52: 657-665. ##Mousavi, L., Shahrokhi, H., Norasteh, A.A. (2009). The effect on the static and dynamic postural control in male and female athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine. 3: 127-113. [In Persian].##Gribble PA, Tucker WS, White PA. Time-of-day influences on static and dynamic postural control. J Athl Train. 2007; 42(1):35-41. ##Mahdavi zade Molabashi L, Safavi Bayat Z, Yaghmaei F and Mehrabi Y.Effect of balance training on balance in elderly nursing home resident in Tehran in 2010 – 2011. J Salmandi Iran 2011; 9(4):33-9. [In Persian].##Abbasi A,Sadeghi H, Berenjian Tabrizi H, Bagheri K and Ghaseminejad A R. Effect of balance training in water and non training on neuromuscular function and elderly male balance. Koomesh 2012; 3 (43):44-9. [In Persian].##Manini T, Marko M, VanArnam T, Cook S, Fernhall B, Burke J, Ploutz-Snyder L .Efficacy of resistance and task-specific exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(6):616-23.##Agarwal R. Regulation of circadian blood pressure: from mice to astronauts. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010; 19(1):51-8.##Nakano T, Araki K, Michimori A, Inbe H, Hagiwara H, Koyama E. Nineteen-hour variation of postural sway, alertness and rectal temperature during sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001; 55(3):277-8.##Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Train. 2005; 40(1):41-46.##Sadeghi H, Norouzi HR, Karimi Asl AMontazer MR, Functional Training Program Effect on Static and Dynamic Balance in Male Able-bodied Elderly. J Salmandi Iran 2009; 3(8):565-571.[In Persian].##Borzoo S, Arastoo A A, Ghasemzade R,Zahednejad Sh, Habibi A H and Latifi S M. Effect of aerobic training on elderly quality of life in Ahvaz. J Salmandi Iran 2009; 3(2):43-5.[In Persian].##Munch M, Knoblauch V, Blatter K, Schroder C, Schnitzler C, Krauchi K, et al. Age-related attenuation of the evening circadian arousal signal in humans .Neurobiol Aging. 2005; 26(9):1307-19. Epub 2005 Apr 18.##Maki BE, Holliday PJ, Topper AK. Fear of falling and postural performance in the elderly. J Gerontol. 1991; 46(4):M123-31.##