عنوان مقاله [English]
Aims: The purpose of this research was effect of instructional and motivational self-talk in covert and overt levels on learning the shape and accuracy of over arm throw in children.
Methodology: Participants in this study, 50 female students from primary first and second grade were and were divided randomly in five groups. During 6 sessions, the throwing task was done with the right hand to the target on the wall. In the pre-test and retention test throwing accuracy based on the task Luciana et al. (2012) and the shape of over arm throw based on the list Czech Anderson (1999) criteria evaluated. Participants 24 hours after the last training session, in retention test performed a block of 10 trials from a distance of 3 meters, similar to pre-test conditions.
Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that difference is statistically significant between the accuracy of throw in control, covert instructional self-talk, overt instructional self-talk, covert motivational self-talk, overt motivational self-talk. Covert instructional self-talk group with higher accuracy compared with the overt motivational and instructional self-talk groups. In retention phase, findings of shape of over arm throw showed covert and overt instructional self-talk groups had significantly higher performance compared to the covert and overt motivation self talk and control groups.
Conclusion: According to the findings of this study suggest that teachers in teaching basic skills such as throwing pattern, revealing the use of instructional self-talk.